Using AI/ML to Discover Comets

April 22, 2022

SESDA staff has supported operations of SOHO’s Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) for over 25 years. One of the primary objectives of this instrument is to image the solar corona to study phenomena such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CME’s). A remarkable and unintended by-product of LASCO has been the discovery of over 4000 sungrazing comets through NASA’s Sungrazer Citizen Science Program conducted jointly with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In 2022, this program partnered with NASA’s Open-Source Science Initiative in a data challenge to develop artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) tools to automate the identification and tracking of faint comets that approach the Sun. This challenge has already reaped benefits by enabling the discovery of two previously undetected comets from 2005 and 2016.

HECN Team Demonstrates High-Speed Networking at SC21

January 31, 2022

At the SuperComputing 2021 (SC21) event, the SESDA HECN team demonstrated the use of NVMe over Fabric over TCP (NVMe-OF/TCP) technology across a 400-GigE wide-area network (WAN) infrastructure using 200-GigE Mellanox NICs, NVMe SSD drives, and PCIe Gen4 x16 slots in the demo servers.
The new NVMe-OF/TCP technology is now fully supported by recent Linux kernels which allowed showcasing very high performance disk-to-memory network data transfers between a pair of high performance 4×200-GigE SuperMicro AMD EPYC NVMe servers in the MAX Suite that was routed across the 400-GigE ESnet/Internet2 WAN path to the StarLight Booth at SC21 and then looped to the MAX Suite. An aggregate throughput of 24.35 GB/s (194.8 Gigabits per second (Gbps)) was achieved with 64 parallel reads across 16 NVMe drives, with only a moderate level of system CPU utilization on the server. When looping the traffic at StarLight instead of SC21, which reduced the RTT from 19.7 ms to 14.7 ms, aggregate throughput of 25.11 GB/s (200.9 Gbps) was achieved. On purely local transfers between the two servers, an aggregate throughput of 44.53 GB/s (356.2 Gbps) was reached.

ADNET Supports JWST Launch Activities

December 21, 2021

Since October 2021 ADNET staff has supported James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) launch activities in the Goddard Space Flight Center Building 28 atrium including setting up a broadcasting stage with networking for live shows, interviews and a series of major television and social media events. The L-6 Webb Press Conference was carried live on NASA-TV Thursday, December 16 between 11 AM and Noon ET and featured live video connections with the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore and a location near the JWST launch site in Kourou. NASA Administrator Bill Nelson was on the set along with other Webb officials.

SESDA Supports Another Successful Sounding Rocket Launch

August 30, 2021

Congratulations to the NASA GSFC and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) teams on successful launches of two Black Brant suborbital sounding rockets on July 7 and 11, 2021. The twin rockets (named Dynamo-2) deployed identical latest technology payloads designed to measure DC electric fields, plasma density, currents, neutral winds, neutral density and temperature, and ion mass distributions. SESDA hardware and software engineers played vital roles in supporting the mechanical design, fabrication, assembly, integration and test (I&T) of the onboard instruments, and developing a ground-based magnetometer to monitor ionospheric dynamo region conditions.

SESDA Supports a Successful Sounding Rocket Launch

May 21, 2021

Image Credit: NASA Wallops/Terry Zaperach

Congratulations to the NASA GSFC and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) teams on the successful launch of a Black Brant XII suborbital sounding rocket at 8:44 p.m. EDT on May 16, 2021. The rocket was launched from WFF and carried the KiNETic eXperiment (KiNet-X) which aims to study how energy and momentum are transported between different regions of space that are magnetically connected. SESDA hardware and software engineers played critical roles in supporting the mechanical design, fabrication, assembly, integration and test (I&T) of the onboard instruments, and developing decommutation software to read and decode the instrument telemetry stream.

SESDA Supports Mars Landing

April 5, 2021

The NASA audio program, based at Goddard, and led by SESDA staff (Katie Atkinson, lead) supported communications efforts for the Mars Perseverance landing in February. Staff worked with NASA HQ and Jet Propulsion Laboratory communications teams to plan, produce, and release a “Sounds of Mars” episode for the enterprise podcast, NASA’s Curious Universe. With this release, NASA debuted the first audio recording from Mars via NASA’s audio platforms. It is the first time recorded sounds from Mars were featured on any podcast.

The episode released in tandem with the Feb. 22 Mars Perseverance press conference from JPL, and featured the voices of Jim Green (NASA Chief Scientist), David Gruel (Perseverance EDL Camera Lead), and Erisa Stilley (Perseverance Systems Engineer). The final “Sounds of Mars” episode was featured on the front page on the Apple Podcasts page and garnered over 150k plays on Soundcloud in a week, breaking the record for most plays of a NASA podcast episode on soundcloud.com/nasa.

Additionally, throughout the month of March, NASA’s SoundCloud page received 5,000,000 listens and saw a surge in subscribers to the page. NASA’s SoundCloud now has 145k followers.”

Applying Machine Learning (ML) to Space Weather Prediction

A coronal mass ejection erupting from the Sun (left) and the resulting solar storm colliding with Earth’s protective magnetic field, the magnetosphere (right). Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

NASA scientists and University partners are applying Machine Learning (ML) techniques to study the internal structure of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). With the support of SESDA software developers, they are using neural networks to connect simulations and observed magnetic clouds to understand and predict the internal magnetic structure of interplanetary coronal mass ejections which is a crucial step towards improving space weather forecast capability.

High End Computer Networking Advances

December 11, 2020

This year’s High End Computer Networking (HECN) Super Computing 2020 (SC20) Wide Area disk-to-disk demonstration was to be performed over a 4x100Gb/s ESNet pathway that continues onto additional wide-area networks. Because ESNet was in the process of upgrading their network they were unable to provide this connection, however plans are to perform these tests in January 2021. The HECN team built another server this year which has several improvements over last year’s demo system: greatly increased I/O bandwidth using the AMD EPYC processor, with each processor having 128 lanes of PCIe Gen4, the PCIe Gen4 2x200G Ethernet NIC (using it as a 2x100G NIC to interconnect into existing infrastructure), and higher performance PCIe Gen4 NVMe drives. The previous server relied on multiple PCIe switches to expand the two X16 PCIe Gen3 paths from each processor to interconnects for the PCIe NICs and NVMe drives.

SESDA Scientist Helps Reveal Additional Strange Behavior from Betelgeuse

August 20, 2020

An image from the Heliospheric Imager aboard NASA’s STEREO spacecraft shows the star Betelgeuse, circled. For several weeks in 2020, STEREO was the only observatory making measurements of Betelgeuse because of the spacecraft’s unique position in space. Credits: NASA/STEREO/HI

The red giant star Betelgeuse has intrigued astronomers by showing unusual dimming over the past several months. Led by a SESDA scientist, a team of investigators from Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Naval Research Laboratory, and Rutherford Appleton Lab used observations from the STEREO spacecraft to confirm that Betelgeuse is dimming again. This finding is surprising as Betelgeuse typically goes through brightness cycles lasting about 420 days, with the previous minimum in February 2020. Hence, this dimming is happening unexpectedly early and is currently a mystery. The science team reported these observations via The Astronomer’s Telegram on July 28, 2020.

SESDA Supports ESA/NASA in First Returns of Solar Orbiter Data

July 16, 2020

Solar Orbiter spots ‘campfires’ on the Sun. Locations of campfires are annotated with white arrows.
Credits: Solar Orbiter/EUI Team (ESA & NASA); CSL, IAS, MPS,
PMOD/WRC, ROB, UCL/MSSL

Solar Orbiter is a new collaborative mission between ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA to obtain detailed observations of the polar regions of the Sun. It was launched in February 2020 from Cape Canaveral with a scientific payload of 10 different instruments. One of these instruments is the Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) spectrometer which was built with the support of SESDA staff at GSFC. The mission just released its first new images to the public, including the closest (48 million miles) pictures ever taken of the Sun. These high-resolution images reveal evidence of ubiquitous brightenings or “campfires” dotting the Sun. The SPICE instrument will play a crucial role in understanding the physical nature of these campfires by providing precise measurements of their temperature.